The Prefecture of Xanthi, starts from the mountains of Rodopi with the virgin forests and the rich flora and fauna. Between these mountains is the fertile valley of Xanthi with rich agricultural production. The Delta of river Nestos, the water biotopes, Vistonida lake, the beaches. The prefecture of Xanthi has it all. Mountains, valleys, sea.
The city of Xanthi today combines the modern with the traditional element but is also characterized with the harmonious coexistence of the christian with the Moslem elements. The old city with the traditional settlements, the inns, the old churches and on the other hand the modern buildings and the industrial part of the city. In the city you will find restaurants and graphic taverns that serve local food.
According to mythology there was the base of operations of god Aris and Voreas. Vistonida Lake is connected to the Labours of Hercules and especially to the Mares of Diomedes.
The region is inhabited since the Neolithic era, according to the archaeological discoveries in the valley of Xanthi. Since the 11th century BC had began the installation of Thracian tribes. It should be mentioned the establishment of Abdera in 656 BC that prospered in the valley of the prefecture. During the Byzantine times prospered the city of Topiros, established in the 1st century AC. In the 14th century the region is occupied by the Turks who built new cities and developed mainly the cultivation of tobacco. Xanthi is the Christian centre while the administrative one used to be Genisea, which is destroyed by fire in 1870. Thus administrative centre became Xanthi even if it had suffered two destructive earthquakes in 1829. In 1912 the area is occupied by the Bulgarians, in 1913 it is liberated by the Greeks and then the allies ceded it to the Bulgarians. It is incorporated in Greece in 1920 along with the remainder of Thrace.