The prefecture of Kilkis is in central Macedonia. In its west and northern part are the imposing mountains of Paiko and Mpelles and in the rest of the prefecture is the fertile valley of Axios river where once was the ancient Amfaxitida. In all the prefecture are prehistoric settlements and scattered graves with discoveries that are dated since the 2nd millennium BC. The region passed successively in the hands of the Macedonians, Romans, Byzantines, Turks and Bulgarians and is known for the battles that took place here in the Balkan wars and in the 1st and 2nd World War.
The city of Kilkis is reported for the first time in the years of the Ottoman domination and in the 17th century it was a place where fairs took place. It was developed into a city after 1913 when the Greek troops turned away the Bulgarians from Macedonia after a battle on the hill of Kilkis. After the destruction in Asia Minor in 1922 the area was inhabited by the Greek refugees who changed the physiognomy of the population. After the 1st World War the city developed rapidly into an administrative and economic center and in 1934 Kilkis became the capital of the prefecture.