Life on the island can be traced back to Neolithic times.
The people of Lefkada were part of many major historical events. Historical sources mention them participating in the naval battle of Salamina, the battle of Plataia, the Peloponnesian war, the campaign of Alexander the great and the war against the Romans in the 3rd century B.C.
The history of Lefkada begins from the end of the 7th century B.C. when the island was inhabited from the Corinthians who opened the isthmus. In time Lefkada developed as a commercial centre.
In 1300 J. Orsini builds in the entry of the island the fortress Santa Mavra, a model of fortress craftsmanship of the medieval years.
In 314 the island is subjugated to Kassandros, in 197 B.C. to the Romans, in 1204 A.C. it passes to the Venetians, in 1477 to the Turks until 1684, that it is occupied from the Venetian Morazinis. From 1815 until 1864 the English control the island. Afterwards Lefkada like the rest of the Ionian islands is united with Greece.
Lefkada has produced great intellectual figures. Among them are the national poets of Greece Aristotelis Valaoritis and Aggelos Sikelianos. Of Lefkadian origin is also the national poet of Japan Lefkadios Chern.